Seasonal Flooding Vulnerability, Cause, Impact and Coping Strategies in Southern Ethiopia Urban Areas - Geography - Academic Paper 2012 - ebook 29.99 € - GRIN Heavy rains cause fatal floods in Ethiopia and Somalia, 83,000 people had to be evacuated. Some 500,000 people were so far affected, including some 300,000 displaced.” The speed of water flowing through a river coupled with the depth of the river is called discharge and it can impact the river’s erosion of the surrounding landscape. Where and why do floods occur in Ethiopia? On 5 August 2006, torrential rains caused the Dechatu River to burst its banks, causing serious flash flooding in the region of Dire Dawa. How regional weather systems effect flooding in Ethiopia. Costa, Jon E., & O’Connor, Jim E. (2003). National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Floodplains are the flat areas created from years of overflowing channels of rivers and streams. These places will experience higher magnitude flow of water because the topology will force warm air laden with moisture against the mountains, lifting up the clouds, which cool as they rise and are unable to retain their water so it is released as precipitation. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa, at a latitude of 9 degrees North and 38 degrees East in longitude between the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and the western Indian Ocean. So flooding in Ethiopia affects many people in the region who depend on the Nile River for their livelihoods. The largest flows tend to occur at locations where topographically high areas are oriented perpendicular to path of storm clouds with high moisture content. Another way to increase the risk of floods is to increase the amount of impervious surfaces in flood-prone areas. There are three main seasons called the Kiremt (rainy season from June to September), Belg (light or sporadic rains from March to May), and Bega (dry season from October to February). ADDIS ABABA — Around 217,000 Ethiopians have been displaced by the worst floods in several decades, an Ethiopian minister has said. Flight Center. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2003/circ1245/. Due to the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Nino Southern Oscillation, the short rainy period has recently experienced much more yearly variability. The Blue Nile begins in Lake Tana in the northwest Amhara region, and it provides an average of 58% of the Nile’s waters in Egypt, which is the most of any of the three main river sources. This ongoing cycle influences how much water a river usually holds and its capacity to overflow causing damaging floods. According to state disaster… Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. The slope of a drainage basin (the total area of land where water flows into an individual stream) will determine how water will interact with the river in terms of erosion and flooding. The main cause of these regional seasons is due to the Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) in the Indo-Pacific region, which reaches east to Oceania and west to the Indian Ocean. (2008). When a river becomes swollen because of larger or longer flow than normal, water will exceed the banks and overwhelm methods of flood preparation causing floods. Damage from flooding is often large due to the combination of fast-moving water and the many people who live, work, and develop property along a river. This study focused on finding out flood causative factors and the impacts of flooding on the socio-economic sectors of Dire Dawa. Meanwhile, heavy summer season (June -September) rains continue to cause flooding in many parts of the country. Floods. Erosion over a long period can create large floodplains adjacent to rivers because sediment that has been eroded away eventually settles creating a flat area on either side of a stream. In small river basins, floods are often the result of intense precipitation due to convective storms. The short rainy season in southeastern Ethiopia typically runs from October to January. Where and why do floods occur in Ethiopia? More than 580,000 people have been displaced by the flooding in Somalia, according to the most recent statistics from the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). Similarly, at least 20,000 flood-affected people were evacuated in Haro Hadi Town (since 1 September) as heavy summer rains continue to cause flooding in East Shewa zone in southern Ethiopia. The multidimensional causes of flood hazard and limited landscape based mitigation strategies in the study area have worsen the impacts of flooding. The climate varies greatly depending on the topology and orthographic lift causes much of the rainfall to be deposited in the highlands. These areas are often rich in nutrient rich silty-sediment which is good for growing crops, and often people encroach on floodplains in their development creating dangerously places houses and towns that are at risk if nearby rivers overflow their banks. Orthographic lift occurs more often in areas around the trade winds (which is denoted as between the equator and 30 degrees) with high elevation. Retrieved from http://www.meteo-ethiopia.net/climate.htm, How regional weather systems effect flooding in Ethiopia. Floods in the US: Where they happen and why? Floods in the US: Where they happen and why? US Geological Survey Circular, 1245. Many impervious surfaces can be found in urbanized areas. Doi 10.1007/s00382-013-1991-6. Most precipitation will occur on the windward side of the mountain ranges (or the side that is facing the oncoming wind). Speaking to Xinhua, Muferiat Kamil, Ethiopia Minister of Peace, said various parts of Ethiopia in recent weeks have experienced floods caused by rainfall levels that haven’t been seen for more than 30 years. National Weather Service. Cheung, W. H., Senay, Gabriel B., & Singh, Ashbindu. A long duration or rainfall in a large river watershed or short and heavy precipitation in a small watershed both cause large flows in rivers. Ironically, flooding is common in areas that are prone to drought. International journal of Climatology, 28(13) 1723-1734. Map of rainfall in Ethiopia. The loss of vegetation cover (by deforestation, drought, or other natural causes), loose soil, urbanization, land covered by impervious surfaces, and steep slopes are the main factors that affect the amount of soil erosion and thus increase the damage caused by flooding. One of these is the Awash River Basin located in the Rift Valley and with a surface area of about 113,000 km2, which has the largest level of … After circulating through the oceans, evaporating to the sky, condensing into clouds, and precipitating to land, water drains into streams and flows back to the ocean. Pale blue pools along the river are shallow, silt-laden water or muddy ground. Ethiopia is unique as its highlands are one of the three main catchments for the Nile River, making this area extremely important for a huge number of people who depend on the Nile (approximately 10 countries with a total population of 280 million individuals). The water cycle circulates particles of H2O throughout the earth, and flooding is one of the byproducts. The 2020 East Africa floods were a natural disaster in Rwanda, Kenya, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti and Tanzania, affecting at least 700,000 people.They began when excessive rains began falling in March, leading to massive flooding and landslides. Compared to October 26 (lower image), the river has widened. Climate Dynamics, 43, 1645-1660. Costa, Jon E., & O’Connor, Jim E. (2003). Since mid-April, heavy rainfall and flash floods have washed away livestock, homes and public buildings in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, affecting over 165,000 people along the Shabelle river. In large river basins, large floods occur after persistent climate conditions, such as seasonal snowmelt. The top image, taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite on November 18, 2008, shows floods along the Wabe Shabele, where the impact was most severe. Water is dark blue. Funk, C., & Hoell, A. Urbanization, and the changing of land use from vegetation to impervious surfaces along streams and rivers increases the hazard posed by floods. Clouds are light blue. Caption by Holli Riebeek. ADDIS ABEBA – Afar region has announced the unprecedented flood caused by the overflow of Awash River has left 144, 000 homeless and caused the destruction of properties worth over 5 billion Birr. Similar study conducted in Nigeria (Ologunorisa and Adejumo 2005; Agbola et al. Blodgett, Ronbert H., & Keller, Edward A. A large majority of Ethiopia’s population lives here, the rest live on the flatter areas and work as farmers. About 90% of the sediment for the Nile originates in the Ethiopian highlands and travels the course of the Blue Nile during floods. Some 500,000 people were so far affected, including some 300,000 displaced. The flooding of 6 August, 2006 was unprecedented and caused severe impacts in the city. At the end of October, the Famine Early Warning System Network had forecast a weak rainy season (averaged over the entire three to four month period) for the region, which would lead to food shortages. However, intense rainfall in the highlands causes flooding of settlements in a number of river basins. Land The objective of this study was to analyze flood hazard and inundation area mapping of Awash River Basin. Bare or sparsely vegetated ground is tan. The loss of vegetation cover (by deforestation, drought, or other natural causes), loose soil, urbanization, land covered by impervious surfaces, and steep slopes are the main factors that affect the amount of soil erosion and thus increase the damage caused by flooding. This process determines at any given point how much water flows in rivers and the potential of a river to overflow its banks causing damaging floods. Officials have said at least 22 died in flooding there in October, the Associated Press reported. Flooding also destroys crops and can wipe away trees and other important structures on land. The movement of storms coupled with location relative to sources of moisture (such as oceans) and the orientation of mountains effect where rain will fall, most often occurring when mountains are perpendicular to the direction of cloud and storm movement. Whenever flooding takes place, there is the possibility of loss of life, hardship to people, and extensive damage to property. Almost 45% of Ethiopia is resting on a high elevation plateau with many mountains. Trends and Spatial Distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia. This can be seen in Ethiopian flatlands to the south, which are closer to large water bodies such as the western Indian Ocean, but the central high plateaus of Ethiopia experience the majority of precipitation and flooding due to the high elevation and mountains in this region. Erosion of soil worsens flooding. The floods forced more than 52,000 people to leave their homes along the Wabe Shabele and other rivers in the region, said the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. The flooding comes despite Ethiopia starting to fill the reservoir behind a giant new dam upstream on the Blue Nile in July. Many people build, work, and live on floodplains (areas adjacent to rivers created by many years of deposited sediment) despite the risk, putting themselves and their livelihoods at risk. Dire Dawa, the second largest city of Ethiopia, has been suffering from disastrous floods in its history. Geo for CXC. Retrieved from http://www.geoforcxc.com/water/river-features/. However the effects of this increased precipitation can be felt far away as the flood waters can reach distant areas that are low lying and these low-lying areas will also experience a more disastrous effect, especially where many people live close to the banks of rivers in a valley. Importance of the Nile River’s origins in Ethiopia; Seasons in Ethiopia; Flooding in Ethiopia. The floods also destroyed crops, cut off transport, and killed three people, said the United Nations. While the rains caused destructive flooding, they may also have been beneficial. The flooding is caused by overflow of Reb River and its subsidiaries, according to EBC report. In many river systems of Ethiopia, flood can cause a range of impacts and risks such as pollution of drinking water, death and injury, distraction of houses and lively hood, displacement, and distraction of the community and wildlife. Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change induced disasters such as drought, epidemics, flood, conflict, earthquake, pests, wildfire and landslide, amongst others. ADDIS ABABA- (ENA) Unprecedented flood caused by the overflow of Awash River has displaced more than 144,000 persons and caused over 5 billion Birr damage in Afar Regional State. Erosion of soil worsens flooding. The flooding has also caused damage on properties and farms of the farmers who live in the surrounding. A picture posted by OWS Development Fund is which is operating in Somali Regional State, show the devastation of recent flooding. Retrieved from http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/atmos/hydro.htm. "I could hear people, perhaps my neighbors, screaming for help, but I could only fight for the survival of my family," Ahmed Sabrie, a … National Meteorological Agency Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The short rainy season in southeastern Ethiopia typically runs from October to January. Ethiopia is in the midst of a rainy season which started in July and is expected to last until mid-September, which occasionally causes landslides and floods in some parts of the East African country. This study was conducted in the Dire Dawa city watershed with the aims of assessing flood causing factors and to propose landscape based flood mitigation strategies. 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